1. What are the components of balance system ?
- Inner ear (3 semicicular canals and otolith organs )
- Vision (VOR)
2. How does balance system work ?
Function of vestibular system :
Transformation of the forces associated with head acceleration and gravity into biological signals that the brain can use to develop subjective awareness of head position in space (orientation)
produce motor reflexes that will maintain posture and ocular stability
It is not surprising that vestibular lesions cause :
- Posture and gait disturbances
- Visual distortion (oscillopsia )
3. What is vertigo ?
The word "vertigo" comes from the Latin "vertere", to turn + the suffix "-igo", a condition = a condition of turning about). It is an illusion of self rotation or feeling of surroundings rotating around you.
4. Common Causes of Vertigo
4.1 Inner Ear Problems :
Collections of calcium, inflammation, and certain infections can cause problems in the vestibular system.
The Vestibular system comprises of the inner ear and the nervous system which control the balance. The
most common types of vertigo caused by inner ear affections are paroxysmal positional vertigo, Meniere’s
disease and vestibular neuritis.
4.2 Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) commonly referred to positional vertigo is developed due to
collection of calcium in the inner ear. These calcium collections are called canaloliths which are moved to treat
the BPPV. It is the most common treatment for BPPV. Vertigo in people with BPPV is brief lasting from few
seconds to minutes.
4.3 Meniere's Disease
Meniere's Disease is a condition which causes repeated vertigo spells, hearing loss and ringing in the ears. This
results due to build up of fluid in the inner ear. The vertigo in this case can last from minutes to several hours.
4.4 Vestibular Neuritis
Vestibular Neuritis commonly known as labyrinthitis. It is cause swelling around the nerve responsible for balance. A
sudden nausea, vomiting, difficulty in standing & walking develops. This type of vertigo can last upto several
days. Hearing loss is one ear is associated in such cases.
4.5 Head injury
Head injury adversely affecting the vestibular system leads to vertigo.
Medications which damage the function of inner ear can lead to vertigo. In such cases even the brain may
4.7 Migraine Vertigo
Migraine Vertigo is caused in association with severe migraine headache attack. It is called as vestibular
4.8 Brain stroke or TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack )
Brain stroke or TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack ) leading to bleeding in the brain or ischemia (hampered blood supply) to the
brain can also cause vertigo.
5. Symptoms of Vertigo
- Spinning (You or the room around you)
- Tilting or Swaying
- Feeling off balance
- Vomitting or feeling nauseous
- Having a headache and/or intolerance to bright light and noise
- Double vision, having trouble speaking or swallowing or feeling weak
- Feeling short of breath or sweaty, having a racing heart beat
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6. Vertigo Treatment in Mumbai Are Offered Through State-Of-The-Art-Facilities such as :
- Video Nystamography (VNG)
- Electronystagmography (ENG)
- Craniocorpography (CCG)
- Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP)
- Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV)
- Electrocochleography (ECOchG)
- Dynamic Visual Activity (DVA)